Sarmistha Pal (lead author) and Joan DaVanzo co-authored a December 2017 article in Surgery Technology International on the impact of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES) on episode costs and post-acute care utilization in total knee replacement patients with disuse atrophy. NMES is a complement to conventional forms of physical therapy. NMES involves the application of low-level electrical currents to targeted muscles which helps to strengthen the quadriceps muscle, thereby improving surgical outcomes and decreasing complications. The authors found that patients who used NMES had lower costs and a lower probability of readmission. The article can be accessed here.